Some states have Civic Confinement laws, which allow very-high-risk sex offenders to be placed in secure facilities, "in many ways like prisons", where they are supposed to be offered treatment and regularly reevaluated for possible release. In , a murder registry was proposed in Rhode Island and an animal abuser registry was proposed in Pennsylvania. At least one state Illinois reclassifies all registrants moving in the state into the highest possible tier Sexual Predator , regardless of the original tier of the person, leading to a lifetime registration requirement and being publicly labelled as a "Sexual Predator". In practice, most states with Civil Commitment centers rarely release anyone. In general, in states applying risk-based registry schemes, low-risk Tier I offenders are often excluded from the public disclosure. A November Maryland Court of Appeals ruling exempts homeless persons from that state's registration requirements, which has prompted a drive to compose new laws covering this contingency. Some sex offenders may come to view their central identity as being that of a sex offender due to the registry, and the more a sex offender views themselves as being a criminal the more likely they are to reoffend. People listed on the register are prohibited from working with children or mentally disabled people, from managing institutions that care for children or mentally disabled people, and from being foster parents or adoptive parents. However political lobby group the Sensible Sentencing Trust has criticised the proposed register for its lack of public access.
While these disparities in level of public disclosure among different states might cause unexpected problems after registration, they have also caused some registrants to move into locations where public disclosure of lower level offenders is not permitted, in order to avoid public persecution and other adverse effects of public disclosure they were experiencing in their original location. Montana, for example, has a publicly accessible violent offender registry that includes crimes such as aggravated assault, robbery, assaulting a police officer, both deliberate and non-deliberate homicide and a third conviction for domestic violence. More than half of the children of sex offenders say that fellow students treat them worse due to a parent's RSO status. At least one state Illinois reclassifies all registrants moving in the state into the highest possible tier Sexual Predator , regardless of the original tier of the person, leading to a lifetime registration requirement and being publicly labelled as a "Sexual Predator". Regardless of whether they are at work, offenders must extinguish all outside residential lighting and post a sign stating, "No candy or treats at this residence - sex offender at this residence". Such places are usually schools, worship centers, and parks, but could also include public venues stadiums , airports, apartments, malls, major retail stores, college campuses, and certain neighborhoods unless for essential business. However, since sex crimes are the most under-reported crimes,  whether or not the Department of Justice's 5. In some US jurisdictions, the level of offender is reflecting the evaluated recidivism risk of the individual offender, while in others, the level is designated merely by the virtue of conviction, without assessing the risk level posed by the offender. Information pertaining to names, addresses, physical description and vehicles are made public via official websites. Some states have disclosed some of Tier I offenders,  while in some states all Tier I offenders are excluded from public disclosure. A bill to create a publicly accessible registry for domestic violence offenders passed the Texas House of Representatives in , but was not voted on in the Texas Senate. In some states only the highest risk Tier III offenders are subject to public disclosure, while some states also include moderate-risk Tier II offenders in public websites. Public disclosure of sex offender information[ edit ] Currently, only the United States allows, and more often than not requires public disclosure of offender information, regardless of individual risk. Some states have Civic Confinement laws, which allow very-high-risk sex offenders to be placed in secure facilities, "in many ways like prisons", where they are supposed to be offered treatment and regularly reevaluated for possible release. Level Tier I, Level II, and Level III offenders, information is usually accessible related to that level information being more accessible to the public for higher level offenders. Residency restrictions may even cause a sex offender's family to be homeless. A study by professors from Columbia University and the University of Michigan found that having police-only sex offender registries e. A study found no evidence that New York's registry or notification laws reduced sexual offenses by rapists, child molesters, sexual recidivists, or first-time sex offenders. Some states exclude low tier offenders from public registries while in others, all offenders are publicly listed. Civil right groups,   law reform activists,    academics,   some child safety advocates,       politicians  and law enforcement officials  think that current laws often target the wrong people, swaying attention away from high-risk sex offenders, while severely impacting lives of all registrants,     and their families,   attempting to re-integrate to society. The public does not have access to the registry; it is available to employers of people who work with children or mentally disabled people, to authorities responsible for licensing institutions that care for children or mentally disabled people, and to those responsible for approving foster care and adoptions. Application to offenses other than felony sexual offenses[ edit ] Sex offender registration has been applied to crimes other than rape, child molestation, and child pornography offenses and is sometimes applied to certain non-sexual offenses. Some sex offenders may come to view their central identity as being that of a sex offender due to the registry, and the more a sex offender views themselves as being a criminal the more likely they are to reoffend. Persons who are registered Sex Offenders from other jurisdictions are not registered when they immigrate or are deported to Trinidad and Tobago. Sex offenders who have completed probation or parole may also be subject to restrictions above and beyond those of most felons. There are several gaps in this policy noted by members of the Caribbean Committee against Sex Crimes, most notably that the registry only deals with offenses committed within the Jurisdiction of Trinidad and Tobago. Ohio has a publicly accessible registry for people convicted five or more times of drunken driving.
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